Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Cavity - HFSS Tutorial
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A technique for reducing the dimensions of the cavity of a cavity-backed slot antenna CBSA is presented, which facilitates proper fabrication and integration of miniaturized slot antennas on multilayer substrates.
This is accomplished by replacing the solid metal around the traditional slot antennas with a specific metallic pattern that can be viewed as a cavity backed slot antenna of parallel strip lines placed around the slot antenna.
This metallic pattern is then modified by designing the parallel strips in a compact fashion to reduce the overall antenna dimensions and obtain a reduced-size CBSA.
It is shown that, cavity backed slot antenna a simple straight slot antenna, the overall occupied volume of the modified cavity backing the slot antenna can be reduced by more than 65% without affecting the high radiation efficiency of the antenna.
A number of traditional cavity backed slot antennas and the proposed modified CBSAs are designed, fabricated, and measured.
The reduced-size CBSAs show a very low input VSWR, low cross-polarized radiation levels, and high radiation efficiency.
The continuous ground plane is replaced with metallic strips normal to the slot antenna.
Solid line: E-plane co-pol.
Dash-dotted line: E-plane cross-pol.
Dash-dashed line: H-plane co-pol.
Dotted line: H-plane cross-pol.
To reduce the antenna radiation, a narrow cavity is located behind the slot antenna.
The present work, the improvement of the matching between the transmission line and antenna is obtained by including the lateral slot lines that etching at ground side of SIW antenna.
Researchers have concentrated on size reduction of the metallic cavity by ferrite or dielectric loading in the cavity.
A technique for enhancing the bandwidth of the planar slot antenna on the substrate integrated waveguide cavity has been discussed in this paper.
Planar slot antennas are extensively used in research because of its simple profile and moderate gian.
Inspite of employing a planar rectangular slot which results in a narrow bandwidth, a broadband slot can be used to improve the bandwidth.
This slot antenna is been placed at the rear end of the substrate integrated waveguide and excited by 50Ω grounded coplanar waveguide to provide good isolation.
The substrate integrated waveguide adopts the mm wave technology and it facilitates the feeding element and the antenna to be built on the same substrate.
The return loss is obtained as -30 dB and -22 dB at 10GHz and impedance bandwidth of 1.
Further the performance is analysed by varying the height of the substrate, the length and width of the slot.
The benefits of the antenna include simple profile, low weight, easy fabrication and integration online free slots of oz wizard planar circuits.
A novel quarter-mode substrate integrated waveguide miniaturized cavity-backed antenna loading Minkowski fractal gap is presented in this paper.
Firstly, the resonant frequency of the rectangular substrate integrated waveguide resonator is reduced by etching the fractal gap in the resonator to achieve miniaturization.
In addition, because of the symmetry of electric field distribution in second and third order resonant modes, the cavity can be segmented into a quarter-mode and the other order resonance modes with asymmetric electric field distribution can be suppressed according to the cavity model theory.
Hence, the cavity size is further reduced.
The dimension of designed antenna is 0.
Moreover, the orthogonal polarization of the proposed antenna in two frequency bands is achieved because the electric field is orthogonal in second and third order resonant modes.
This dual-frequency orthogonal polarization characteristic enables antenna to communicate in two working bands and has good channel isolation.
The simulated and measured results are consistent.
The antenna gain is 4.
In this work, antenna miniaturization using slits and metallic strips fed by microstrip line has been demonstrated.
It has been noticed that slot antenna fed by microstrip line provides more miniaturization and in some cases enhanced bandwidth in comparison with the slot antenna fed by other feeding mechanism, keeping the same cavity backed slot antenna and width of the radiating slots, slits and metallic strips.
We have achieved 51.
Further, it has been shown 63.
A wearable textile antenna based on the fundamental mode of a quarter-mode substrate integrated waveguide is presented for short-range wireless applications.
The antenna operates in the UHF frequency band, at 868 MHz, has a compact size, and requires minimal manufacturing complexity and a very low production cost.
Moreover, it presents a good isolation from the human body, and a significant robustness with respect to deformation.
If compared with its substrate integrate waveguide resonator counterpart, the proposed antenna size has been reduced of 75%, without degrading its performance.
The proposed structure has been simulated using CST Microwave Studio, and its gain is around 2 dBi, with a broadside radiation pattern.
All these features make it very promising for short-range wireless communications.
This paper presents a cavity-backed slot antenna CBSA array for the estimation of direction-of-arrival DOA.
This new CBSA employs an alternative feeding structure referred to M-CBSA, hereafter to excite the radiation of cavity-backed slots and transfer the area for RF module implementation from the front surface of the array aperture to the bottom behind the cavity.
This back feeding design allows the accommodation of active RF modules inserted from the bottom behind the antenna aperture, and avoids interfering with the antenna radiation.
The new feeding structure may also reduce the depth of the metal cavity and, in turn, decrease the thickness and weight of antennas in the phased array composition to make a compact array with a low profile.
The bandwidth is found to be larger than that of a conventional CBSA.
The antenna array for the DOA https://money-top-bonus-slots.site/slot/hot-volcano-slot.html has been prototyped with 32 elements.
Experimental data and numerical simulation results are presented to click the proposed antenna design concepts.
IEEE Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies This letter presents a compact circularly polarized cavity-backed four-slot antenna using an inverted configuration.
The four-element slot antenna is fed by a microstrip network on the topside of the substrate, while a metallic cavity of rectangular shape is placed in the slot side of the substrate.
The measured 10-dB return loss and 3-dB axial ratio bandwidths at the center frequency 6 GHz are 26.
The measured antenna gain for right-hand circular polarization RHCP is 8.
With the use of the spherical wave functions to describe the field, the directivity gain G and the Q of an unspecified antenna are have gala bingo slots and games know under idealized conditions.
To obtain a gain higher than this value, the Q of the antenna increases at an astronomical rate.
A new miniaturized printed antenna is presented as a dual structure to the miniature folded slot antenna.
It is referred to as a miniaturized printed folded-dipole.
This antenna requires neither a ground plane, nor any matching network.
Considering its size, this resonant antenna has a fairly wide bandwidth.
If a large enough ground plane is readily available, the miniaturized slot antenna exhibits superior efficiency compared to its printed dual.
The general problem of a cavity-backed aperture radiator is formulated for the tangential electric field in the aperture.
The result is used to obtain an integro-differential equation for the special case of a narrow slot backed by a rectangular cavity resonator.
This equation is then solved numerically by the method of moments with the proper choice of piecewise sinusoidal basis and testing functions to remove the differential operator in the integrand.
Typical numerical results are presented to show the effect of various cavity and slot dimensions on quantities such as voltage cavity backed slot antenna along the slot, input impedance, resonance frequency and bandwidth of the antenna.
Proposes a wide slot antenna to expand the frequency bandwidth of a cavity-backed slot antenna.
In the antenna the slot width is significant in comparison with the slot cavity backed slot antenna />The authors present the analysis of the antenna including the feed line.
This paper examines techniques such as parasitic coupling and inductive loading to achieve higher BW and further size reduction for this class of miniaturized slot antennas.
The overall BW of a proposed double resonant antenna is shown to be increased by more than 94% compared with a single resonant antenna occupying the same area.
The behavior of miniaturized slot antennas, loaded with series inductive elements along the radiating section is also examined.
The inductive loads are constructed by two balanced short circuited slot lines placed on opposite sides of the radiating slot.
These inductive loads can considerably reduce the antenna size at its resonance.
Prototypes of a double resonant antenna at 850 MHz and inductively loaded miniaturized antennas at around 1 GHz are designed and tested.
Finally the application of both methods in a dual band miniaturized antenna is presented.
In all cases measured and simulated results show excellent agreement.
The design aspects and the measured results of a novel miniaturized planar antenna are described.
Such architectural antenna design is of great importance in mobile military communications where low visibility and high mobility are required.
Slot radiating elements, having a planar geometry and capable of transmitting vertical polarization when placed nearly horizontal, are appropriate for the applications at hand.
Slot antennas also have another useful property, so far as impedance matching is concerned.
Basically, slot dipoles can easily be excited by a microstrip line https://money-top-bonus-slots.site/slot/free-play-monopoly-slots-online.html can be matched to arbitrary line impedances simply by moving the feed point along the slot.
We demonstrate miniaturization by designing an appropriate geometry for a resonant narrow slot antenna.
A very efficient radiating element that occupies an area as small as 0.
Simulation results, as well as the measured input impedance and radiation patterns of this antenna, are presented.
This structure shows a measured gain of 0.
Also, the effect of finite ground plane size on gain and resonant frequency is investigated experimentally.
With the virtual enforcement of the required boundary condition BC at the end of a slot antenna, the area occupied by the resonant antenna can be reduced.
To achieve the required virtual BC, the two short circuits at the end of the resonant slot are replaced by some reactive BC, including inductive or capacitive loadings.
The application of these loads is shown to reduce the size of the resonant slot antenna for a given resonant frequency without imposing any stringent condition on the impedance matching of the antenna.
A procedure for designing this class of slot antennas for any arbitrary size is presented.
The procedure is based on an equivalent circuit model for the antenna and its feed structure.
The corresponding equivalent circuit parameters are extracted using a full-wave forward model in conjunction with a genetic algorithm optimizer.
These parameters are employed to find a proper matching network so that a perfect match to a 50 Ω line is obtained.
For a prototype slot antenna with approximate dimensions of 0.
Since there are neither polarization nor mismatch losses, the antenna efficiency is limited only by the dielectric and ohmic losses.
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The computed dispersion diagram of the substrates shows that surface wave propagation is forbidden along specific directions.
By properly orienting the patch antenna on the substrate, this can result in good improvement of antenna performance.
In agreement with the expected result, the measured radiation pattern shows a 10 dB reduction in the side lobes associated with power launched from surface waves Among many microstrip antenna configurations, the closed-ring microstrip antenna can be considered as an intermediate structure between patch and printed loop antennas.
As the ring width becomes narrower, the resonant frequency shifts downward, its TM11 mode resistance increases to a few thousands of ohms and becomes impossible to match to a 50-Ω impedance Bafrooei, P.
One way to feed a ring antenna is to use a loading mechanism.
Stub loading, investigated by Garg, R.
Other possible loading techniques however, such as notch, gap or shorting pins, have not yet been studied to our knowledge.
Garg and Reddy observed that the stub loading mechanism increases the cross-polarization, as it disturbs the current distribution and generates another mode.
However, our investigations by simulation and measurement have shown that some loading techniques could achieve low cross polarization, which is the subject of our investigation.
For one stub loading, the cross polarization level was -10.
The simulated cross-polarizations for a gap and a shorting pin were -46.
The concept of a circularly-polarized planar array based on the use of the complementary strip-slot element is explored.
This element is a conventional microstrip-fed slot that overcomes its narrow bandwidth by using a strip superimposed onto it.
The array is fed in a traveling-wave configuration and a ring shape is used to provide the required circular polarization with the sequential rotation technique.
A design example is analysed by electromagnetic simulation.
Thanks to the broadly-matched strip-slot element, multiband behaviour with axial ratio below 3 dB, good matching better than 15 dB and high radiation efficiency is obtained at 6.
This novel antenna offers design flexibility with a very simple structure.
The finite-difference time-domain FDTD method is developed for the analysis of serial corner-fed square patch antennas.
The method improves the accuracy of the original FDTD algorithm without increasing its complexity.
Both the one-port and two-port cases are studied, which are for single- and dual-polarised applications, respectively.
Several antenna elements are manufactured.
An continue reading of -25 dB is achieved by the two-port antenna, which makes it suitable for many dual-polarised applications.
The numerical analysis is confirmed by the experimental results and by results published elsewhere Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in Slot Antenna and many other scientific topics.
Traveling wave slotted guide array
A technique for reducing the dimensions of the cavity of a cavity-backed slot antenna (CBSA) is presented, which facilitates proper fabrication and integration of miniaturized slot antennas on.
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